Silicon Wafer Ingot

We can obtain Silicon wafers by 3 basic methods:

  • Cz (Czochralski method)
  • MCZ (Magnetic Field Applied Czochralski)
  • FZ (Float Zone)

First method allows us to make wafers of a single crystal silicon. Polish chemist, Jan Czochralski, developed this oldest technique. Czochralski method (Cz) is one of the most widely used methods of production of single crystal metals and their alloys.

The MCZ process does not differ much from the standard Czochralski method. This is a promising method that allows us to obtain a larger crystal diameter than before. The basic difference is that MCZ uses the magnetic field. It can be horizontal, then we call the technique HMCZ. If the magnetic field is vertical then the name is VMCZ. Thanks to the magnetic field it is possible to control the flow of convection fluid and reduce the concentration of oxygen.

We use Float zone FZ  method to produce crystalline silicon with high purity. At first the polycrystalline rod and crystalline seed rotate and melt partially by the radio frequency field RF. In this technique, around the polycrystalline block, the molten zone is moving from one edge of the block to another. In the same time it forms the crystalline silicon (monocrystalline).

The crystalline silicon, from which wafers are made, is 99.9999% pure and non-defected. The silicon ingot is cut to the layers using a diamond blade and the resulting plates are polished to achieve perfect purity and smoothness if they are designed for integrated circuits or textured if they are to be used as solar cells.

Silicon Wafer Specifications

Thickness range super thin 2 µm to thick wafer or ingot
Thickness tolerance +/-5%
Growth method Cz, MCZ, FZ
Surface finishing double/single side polished
Crystal orientation (100) (110) (111)
Diameter ranging 25,4 mm – 450 mm
Type P-type, N-type, undoped
Dopant B, P, As, Sb
Resistivity 0.001-10000 Ohm-cm

Small quantities or individually packed wafers are available.

Should you need any further information or you are unable to find the wafer specification you require, please do not hesitate to contact us: or TOLL FREE in Spain (+34) 900 838 909, Portugal (+351) 800 180 183 or France +33 805 080 082.

Read about more products we offer: Indium Phosphide, Thermal OxideSOI SIlicon On Insulator, Glass/Quartz/Sapphire, Silicon Nitride.